Friday, December 27, 2019

Winter Skate Characteristics and Information

The winter skate (Leucoraja ocellata)  is a fish - a type of  cartilaginous fish that has wing-like pectoral fins  and a flat body. Skates resemble a stingray, but have a thicker tail that doesnt have any stinging barbs. The winter skate is one of dozens of species of skates.  . Description: Skates are a diamond-shaped fish that spend most of their time on the ocean bottom. Their gills are on their ventral side, so they breath through spiracles  on their dorsal side. Through the spiracles, they receive oxygenated water. Winter skates have a rounded appearance, with a blunt snout. They look similar to little skates (Leucoraja erinacea).  Winter skates can grow to about 41 inches in length and up to 15 pounds in weight. On their dorsal side, they are light brown with dark spots, and have a lighter, translucent patch on each side of their snout on front of the eyes.   Their ventral side is light with brown blotches. Winter skates have 72-110 teeth in each jaw. Stingrays can protect themselves with stinging barbs on their tail. Skates do not have tail barbs, but have thorns in various places on their body. On young skates, these thorns are on their shoulders, near their eyes and snout, along the middle of their disc and along their tail. Mature females have large thorns on the posterior edge of their dorsal fins and spines on their tail, along the edges of their disk and near their eyes and snout.   So although skates cannot sting humans, they must be handled with care to prevent being punctured by the thorns. Classification: Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Elasmobranchii Order: Rajiformes Family: Rajidae Genus:  Leucoraja Species:  ocellata Feeding: Winter skates are nocturnal, so they are more active at night than during the day.   Preferred prey include polychaetes, amphipods, isopods, bivalves, fish, crustaceans and squid.   Habitat and Distribution: Winter skates are found in the North Atlantic Ocean from Newfoundland, Canada to South Carolina, U.S., on sand or gravel bottoms in waters up to 300 feet deep. Reproduction: Winter skates are sexually mature at 11-12 years. Mating occurs with the male embracing the female.It is easy to distinguish male skates from females because of the presence of claspers, which hang down from the males disk on either side of the tail. These are used  to transmit sperm to the female, and eggs are fertilized internally. The eggs develop in a capsule commonly called a mermaids purse - and then are deposited onto the ocean floor.   Once eggs are fertilized, gestation lasts for several months, during which time the young are nourished by the egg yolk.   When the young skate hatch, they are about 4-5 inches long and look like miniature adults.   The lifespan of this species is estimated at about 19 years.   Conservation and Human Uses: Winter skates are listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List. They take a long time (11-12 years) to become old enough to reproduce and produce few young at a time. Thus their population grows slowly and is vulnerable to exploitation.   Winter skates are harvested for human consumption, but are usually caught when fishermen are targeting other species.   References and Further Information: Bester, C. Winter Skate. Florida Museum of Natural History: Icthyology. Accessed February 27, 2015.Coulombe, Deborah A. 1984. The Seaside Naturalist. Simon Schuster. Kulka, D.W., Sulikowski, J. Gedamke, T. 2009.  Leucoraja ocellata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3.  Accessed February 27, 2015. Packer, D.B., Zetlin, C.A. and J.J. Vitaliano. Winter Skate, Leucoraja ocellata, Life History and Habitat Characteristics.  NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NE-179. Accessed February 28, 2015.NOAA FishWatch. Winter Skate.  Accessed February 27, 2015.

Thursday, December 19, 2019

The Pine Is The Oldest Living Organism On The Planet

Growing in only six states the bristlecone pine is the oldest living organism on the planet. At 4,765 years old the Methuselah is the oldest documented living bristlecone there is, being almost 1,000 years older than its counterparts of the species. The age of this tree can be determined by the amount of rings that are found when the inner truck is exposed. There is where the truth of the extraordinary tree and its undeniable ability to outlive all other organisms lies. The bristlecone having the ability to outlive all other organisms can be questioned but instead of asking how it lives so long it should be questioned on the reasons for its lengthy pace to die. The bristlecone pine is known to grow in the White Mountains of eastern California. In that area conditions are not most desirable and ideal for plants to grow, however the bristlecone has managed to withstand the harsh conditions and surpass the hands of time. The White Mountains are an area that experiences short summers with a season for growing only being measured at several weeks. These mountains also adhere to strong dry winds that travel against rocky souls. These type of conditions cause any rain water that may fall to either drain off to fast for the plant to absorb or the water to just evaporate (Matthews, M). With such harsh conditions it is amazing that the bristlecone is still standing as the oldest living organism, unless it is because of these harsh conditions that the tree has such longevity. It mayShow MoreRelatedAn Article On Earth Essay10094 Words   |  41 Pages This is a featured article. Click here for more information. Page semi-protected Listen to this article Earth From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the planet. For other uses, see Earth (disambiguation). Earth Astronomical symbol of Earth The Blue Marble photograph of Earth, taken by the Apollo 17 lunar mission. The Arabian peninsula, Africa and Madagascar lie in the upper half of the disc, while Antarctica is at the bottom. The Blue Marble photograph of Earth, taken duringRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 PagesAs the essays in this collection document in detail, paradox pervades the time span we call the twentieth century, no matter how it is temporally delineated. Never before in history, for example, had so many humans enjoyed such high standards of living, and never had so many been so impoverished or died of malnutrition and disease. If the period from the 1870s is included in a long twentieth century (and perhaps even if it is not), migration served as a mode of escape from oppression and poverty

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Speech on save water save life free essay sample

Save water, save life Water is necessary for life. Water is needed for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes. Three-fourth of Earths surface is covered by water bodies. 97 per cent of this water is present in oceans as salt water and is unfit for human consumption. Fresh water accounts for only about 2.7 per cent. Nearly 70 per cent of this occurs as ice sheets and glaciers n Antarctica and other inaccessible places. Only one per cent of fresh water is available and fit for human use. So it is very important to conserve this precious resource. And yet we are contaminating the existing water resources with sewage, toxic chemicals and other wastes. Increasing population and rapid urbanisation has led to over-use of water resources leading to water pollution and scarcity. Water scarcity can be defined as a situation when people dont have enough water to fulfil their basic needs. India is one of the many countries that are facing water scarcity today. We will write a custom essay sample on Speech on save water save life or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In Rajasthan and some parts of Gujarat, women have to cover long distances on foot in order to get a pot of water. In cities like Bangalore, a family has to spend from Rs. 15 to Rs. 20 to meet their daily water needs. The problem becomes severe during summer months when availability of water decreases again. A recent study has revealed that about 25 per cent of urban population lack the accessibility to fresh water. Also there are several cases of privatisation of water bodies. This often leads to water scarcity in the nearby areas. There are different methods to deal with water scarcity. Rain water harvesting is the best and most suitable method. Forest and other vegetation cover reduce surface runoff and recharge ground water. So, practise afforestation. We can also promote water conservation through media and by conducting public awareness programmes. By practising these simple steps we can conserve water and ensure the availability of water to future generations. So dont tarry; start saving each and every drop of water. Let our motto be â€Å"Save water, save life, save the world†. Save Water Save Life Water being one of the most essential necessity of life, becoming an increasing scare resource, needs careful planning and management. Availability of safe quality drinking water is being reduced due to pollution from sewage and industrial waste. So water should be meticulously  harnessed and carefully conserved. It should be economically used and safely disposed off after usage. The need of the hour is sustainable water management, specially in the context of meeting the demands of an increasing population. Simply put, it means managing our finite water resources for present needs while keeping in mind the future requirement of next generation. It also means looking at fresh water as an exhaustible, natural and essential resource and seeing watershed areas as sustainable units of water resource development and management. Uttarakhand State, whose glacial peaks and beautiful valleys hold age-old ecological secretes, is a measure water bank for North India. Its 1917 glaciers spreadi ng over 3550 Sq. km, comprise a perennial source of water. The state is largely made up of mountainous areas full of forest, which cradle many rivers and natural water sources. These natural sources are nourished by rain water, which is the biggest source of water on this planet. Ironically, today the people of these mountainous areas are in the vice-like grip of water scarcity. Increasing population has resulted in an unsustainable demand for water, soil erosion in watershed areas, increasing silting of rivers and streams, and depletion of groundwater reserves. Uttarakhand receives an average annual rainfall of 1240 mm, much of which flows into the rivers. If we conserved a bare 0.68% of this rainwater, it would fulfill the drinking water requirement of Uttarakhand. The conservation of 2.36% would suffice irrigation requirement. It means the conservation of a mere 3% of annual rainfall holds the key to the alleviation of the States woes! Considering the importance of water as a life sustaining resource we should launch intensive awareness campaigns for optimum water utilization and management. We should give information on different techniques of water collection, conservation and harvesting. To save water, the ground water table should be properly recharged by water harvesting schemes (making roof harvesting structures). The ancient Naulas, Dharas, Gadharas, Khals and Ponds should be protected from being polluted at their source because these are the main sources of drinking water schemes. The quality of drinking water should also be monitored. Further, linking water conservation programs with Income generating activities will also be beneficial. So water should be save and conserved.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Role of Writing in Imperial and Modern China

Writing is one of the major factors of communication in the present and ancient world. One is able to pass information from one group of people to another through writing. Chinese writing, especially logographic writing system has been rated as the world’s greatest writing system.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Role of Writing in Imperial and Modern China specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This system was widely used than the alphabetical systems, and up to the 18th century more than half of the world’s library has the Chinese books including works of speculative thoughts, historical writings of different kinds and novels, along with writings on government and law (Perry 23). People rarely know the origin of Chinese writing; however, it is traced to have begun in the early second millennium BC (or Yin) dynasty (18th–12th century BC). Chinese language used to show more of ideas than the organiz ation of the language; this made Chinese language be thought of being a logographic type. For example, in Chinese, the identical sound pattern and each of these words are expressed by visual pattern that is distinctive (39). Literate Chinese Speakers mostly draw characters in the air to differentiate homophones (Ray Cleaveland 134). Writing started separately in some parts of Asia and Egypt. The Chinese orthography has its rules, which differ greatly with other forms of writing; this is what makes it unique among other writing systems (Qiu, Mattos Norman 12). Civilization was then brought due to the stability of the Chinese written language. Books that were able to include these interpretations in details were then published. Writing has, therefore, played a significant role in imperial China, as both the artistic pastime for cultured Chinese and the bureaucratic means to warrant the operation of state power. From a political viewpoint, writing has really boosted the way people lo ok at the politics of this country. China is one of the places that are experiencing legitimacy and this can be seen clearly on how parties present themselves to the people. Markedly, the style of presentation can either boost legitimacy or undermine it. Communist party in China has been seen presenting itself in an awkward way, which has resulted in erosion of traditional Confucian discipline of the state.Advertising Looking for essay on asian? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There is a belief that the one-party system is liable for China’s economic success, and that it will remain the dominant force for years to come. It is through writing that the above issues have been raised and made public (Perry 28). Even though the subject of republicanism has stayed to be significant until the present times, the legitimacy of sticking to one-party rule has made it face growing public discontent over widespread corruption among its political leaders. Evidently, the true picture of Chinese politics remains exposed through writing. Constitutionally, China is a â€Å"People’s Republic,† but in real sense there has been nothing of such kind. Although China is independent, corrupt leaders dominate the country staining the image of this country. The politburo system was rejected in most parts of the communist world when the world war ended. The party has always left a bad record whenever it presents its manifesto for political reforms. While the new leaders seems to accept that the party’s badly corrupted image is in urgent need of a makeover, no strong ideas have yet been brought forward (Ray Cleaveland 135). Even though reorganization of China’s political system can improve the current governance system, analysts tend to concentrate on Western democracy while neglecting to focus on modern China. Another famous writer also wrote that, in its narrowest sense, a republic is a politica l order in which the president is not a monarch. Thus, republicanism emphasizes politics by image (Qiu, Mattos Norman 156). The final source of legality is seen as the moral center that has been governed and on good discipline and is acknowledged by the entire community. Republicans in China have been seen campaigning for good morals specifying the qualification a good leader should possess. All the people who were supposed to work in the emperor in China were subjected to exams and interviews, where those who pass the recruitment process secure employment. Though this system worked exceptionally well, and gave out good results, the dynastic system later abolished it in 1911. Since the Modern republicanisms took the leadership, they were unable to take care of the political stability of the country, which resulted in its failure (Zhu 234).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Role of Writing in Imperial and Modern China specifically for you for only $16. 05 $11/page Learn More Chinese has always made writing to be the target of modern reforms. The reform plan, which was seen as the biggest program of change for at least 30 years in China, encompasses major social changes, which comprises of an easing of the One Child Policy and the abolition of â€Å"re-education through labor† camps. This was a strong sign that President Xi Jinping had proclaimed his authority at the controls of the world’s second biggest economy (Qiu, Mattos Norman 200). Xi said that reform and opening up would bring up a decision of the destiny of the modern China, which is also the key of realizing the dream of national transformation. Another reform that has been brought about through writing is the reform on production of movies. Many writes love China, as it always has the best writing skills and good people who can be able to interpret it well. He said that China is going to strengthen the protection of intellectual property and ownership rights. Through the industry of writing, Chinese government has seen the need of having a court of law that is able to protect writers against piracy. Most film producers have been happy since the introduction of these reforms, as they protect them from piracy. So many written materials try to describe how China can be able to develop in its cultural industries. Moreover, it specifies a clear direction saying that Beijing government would aim to â€Å"encourage the development of non-state owned cultural enterprises† (Ray Cleaveland 202). They have also described how the government would encourage state owned cultural enterprises to change their systems in order to become shareholder enterprises. This could be a reference to organization and companies such as the state-owned film Colossus China Film Group, which has a stock market plan listing for years. There was great emphasis on business privatization in this context together with putting barriers to publicatio ns. As it had been thought, the wider plan mostly tackles the economic reform, but in the social areas, there is a wider change than what anyone had been expecting.Advertising Looking for essay on asian? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Government support that include financial support, education, or even construction of good social amenities can support current artists in constructing the meaning of writing. The government has already accepted to support writers through financial support and strengthen copyright policy. Notably, these reforms are intended to spread cultural exchanges and promote international contact and external discourse system, to boost Chinese culture to the world (Perry 137). Even though, this document is great in covering a wider area, it does not elaborate the whole essence of Chinese writings. There are five things, which have been tackled through writing. Innovations in the field of science are the first concept that writing has put forth. China as a country is now at a critical juncture where it needs to build on the past through effective planning in writing. Even though it faces both the challenges and opportunities, it must consider ways of achieving such developments. The congressâ⠂¬â„¢s feedback include, China needs to continue putting more emphasis on economic development. However, investing in education and science is one of the vital things that need to be considered keenly given that education is the source of every innovation and development. The major aim is to improve people’s lifestyles and raise their living standards by providing employment to the unemployed. Economic growth can only be met if the government is going to improve its infrastructure, make sure its political systems are respectable, and make sure the countries core values are protected. The urge brought about through the approach that put more emphasis of the well-being of China’s people and stresses comprehensive, holistic sustainable and best development is what the writer a â€Å"scientific outlook on development† describes (Perry 97). Secondly, a change in the writing policy will result in improvements and opening up of China’s democratic space. Young Ch inese writers have also emerged with their books trying to bring reforms to this country. Author Yang Zewei is among those who want to show how they feel the country needs to move on through their literary writings (Zhu 123). Young writers have also emerged fighting for transformation of China; they claim to educate the public on the ways to be reformed and educated. In June, Bai Ye was heard acknowledging the work of these young authors. The emergence of young authors made the longtime critic relieved given the immediate substitute by the brilliant group. Another writer, Xing An, who is planning another publication have an urge of showing the post 1980 generation’s real power and want to show them that they need to play superior roles in the writers’ club (Qiu, Mattos Norman 200). Chinese president has also been quoted praising the writers for their recommendable job. He said that writers are to be aware of the sacred mission assigned to them by the times and the cit izens. In the speech he gave out, Hu challenged writers to focus mostly their writings in principles of â€Å"Serve the people and serve Socialism† He added that writers should get close to real life issues and solution to problems that people encounter. They need to uphold the spirit of Chinese nationality and produce a greater number of greater works that will live up to the history, the times, and the people (Zhu 136). He acknowledged the effort of writers, which they put in promoting development and prosperity of the socialist culture, saying that artistic undertakings are important parts of the socialist cause with China’s own greater section of socialist culture. Hu claimed that the responsibility of writers and artists is inimitable for the larger development of the Chinese country making them win the trust of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the citizens as well. Writers club has truly helped Chinese writers in expressing what China as a country need to d o and what writers should do as well (Zhu 138). Chinese writers have used writing to preserve their culture by noting down their past cultural practices, as well as noting down the origin of the entire society. For example, the ruling systems and practices of most kingdoms and empires in the ancient China have guided current leaders in modifying their ruling systems in order to handle different regions within the expansive country. An example of the Han dynasty, which is one of the most pronounced Empires of Chinese development. Definitely, Han Empire reigned in China between 206 BC and AD 220, extended its boundaries, and firmly established its administration (Ray and Cleaveland 205). In addition, its governing system has existed in the cultural history of China and embraced among by the current generations. During the years when this empire administrated, there were various changes especially in the western region. Apparently, there was amendment of the extravagant law of Qin Dyna sty and establishments of the most comprehensive cultural ruling. These cultural rulings were Confucianism, which was a set of ethical beliefs acquired from the teachings one of the Chinese scholars called Confucius. During this time, writing helped to keep traces of law modifications and changes in operations of the state. Notably, writers could advocate for alterations of cultures considered backward by the Chinese people. Presently, cultural modifications have taken center stage in which writers have played part of the role in bringing out the uncouth practices that need urgent reforms. Current Chinese writers use writing to streamline the society in line with the expected economic, social, and political development. Writers have been at the forefront in outlining procedures and steps that the government can adopt to increase their performance in order to remain competitive in the present world. Even though writers have been using writing to pass vital information to the public a nd the government, most of them have faced stringent opposition from the targeted bodies, especially government agencies. For example, writing as a powerful tool of transforming society in the political aspect is tricky if the theme of the writing intends to correct government practices. Again, opposing a deeply rooted cultural practice in the society has also made writers face constant rebellions. Although China has been promoting writing all through, some foreign writers are pulling out from Chinese market. For example, in 2003 writer Hillary Rodham Clinton pulled out from Chinese market citing use of her content without her consent. Another writer, Mr. Qiu, who was born in China, but writes English books said he reluctantly agreed to some alterations though he found many had been done without his knowledge too (Qiu, Mattos, and Norman 213). He added that some corrections only make the book lose its theme; this made him not to allow his fourth publication in China after having bee n banned for three consecutive times (214). In most of their works, writers inculcate themes that citizens feel are vital for the betterment of their lives, both from the cultural dimension and from political perspective. Clearly, writing played essential roles in Imperial China, and continues to play the same function in modern China. Works Cited Perry, Elizabeth J. Grassroots political reform in contemporary China. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2007. Print. Qiu, Xigui, Gilbert Louis Mattos, and Jerry Norman. Chinese writing. Berkeley, Calif.: Society for the Study of Early China and the Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, 2000. Print. Ray, Katie Wood, and Lisa B. Cleaveland. About the authors: writing workshop with our youngest writers. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2004. Print. Zhu, Xinmin. Communist China’s political reform and political development. Taipei: World Anti-Communist League, China Chapter:, 1987. Print. This essay on Role of Writing in Imperial and Modern China was written and submitted by user Kyr0n to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.