Friday, December 27, 2019
The winter skate (Leucoraja ocellata)Ã is a fish - a type ofÃ cartilaginous fish that has wing-like pectoral finsÃ and a flat body. Skates resemble a stingray, but have a thicker tail that doesnt have any stinging barbs. The winter skate is one of dozens of species of skates.Ã . Description: Skates are a diamond-shaped fish that spend most of their time on the ocean bottom. Their gills are on their ventral side, so they breath through spiraclesÃ on their dorsal side. Through the spiracles, they receive oxygenated water. Winter skates have a rounded appearance, with a blunt snout. They look similar to little skates (Leucoraja erinacea).Ã Winter skates can grow to about 41 inches in length and up to 15 pounds in weight. On their dorsal side, they are light brown with dark spots, and have a lighter, translucent patch on each side of their snout on front of the eyes. Ã Their ventral side is light with brown blotches. Winter skates have 72-110 teeth in each jaw. Stingrays can protect themselves with stinging barbs on their tail. Skates do not have tail barbs, but have thorns in various places on their body. On young skates, these thorns are on their shoulders, near their eyes and snout, along the middle of their disc and along their tail. Mature females have large thorns on the posterior edge of their dorsal fins and spines on their tail, along the edges of their disk and near their eyes and snout. Ã So although skates cannot sting humans, they must be handled with care to prevent being punctured by the thorns. Classification: Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Elasmobranchii Order: Rajiformes Family: Rajidae Genus:Ã Leucoraja Species:Ã ocellata Feeding: Winter skates are nocturnal, so they are more active at night than during the day. Ã Preferred prey include polychaetes, amphipods, isopods, bivalves, fish, crustaceans and squid.Ã Habitat and Distribution: Winter skates are found in the North Atlantic Ocean from Newfoundland, Canada to South Carolina, U.S., on sand or gravel bottoms in waters up to 300 feet deep. Reproduction: Winter skates are sexually mature at 11-12 years. Mating occurs with the male embracing the female.It is easy to distinguish male skates from females because of the presence of claspers, which hang down from the males disk on either side of the tail. These are usedÃ to transmit sperm to the female, and eggs are fertilized internally. The eggs develop in a capsule commonly called a mermaids purse - and then are deposited onto the ocean floor.Ã Once eggs are fertilized, gestation lasts for several months, during which time the young are nourished by the egg yolk. Ã When the young skate hatch, they are about 4-5 inches long and look like miniature adults.Ã The lifespan of this species is estimated at about 19 years.Ã Conservation and Human Uses: Winter skates are listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List. They take a long time (11-12 years) to become old enough to reproduce and produce few young at a time. Thus their population grows slowly and is vulnerable to exploitation.Ã Winter skates are harvested for human consumption, but are usually caught when fishermen are targeting other species.Ã References and Further Information: Bester, C. Winter Skate. Florida Museum of Natural History: Icthyology. Accessed February 27, 2015.Coulombe, Deborah A. 1984. The Seaside Naturalist. Simon Schuster. Kulka, D.W., Sulikowski, J. Gedamke, T. 2009.Ã Leucoraja ocellata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3.Ã Accessed February 27, 2015. Packer, D.B., Zetlin, C.A. and J.J. Vitaliano. Winter Skate, Leucoraja ocellata, Life History and Habitat Characteristics.Ã NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NE-179. Accessed February 28, 2015.NOAA FishWatch. Winter Skate.Ã Accessed February 27, 2015.
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Growing in only six states the bristlecone pine is the oldest living organism on the planet. At 4,765 years old the Methuselah is the oldest documented living bristlecone there is, being almost 1,000 years older than its counterparts of the species. The age of this tree can be determined by the amount of rings that are found when the inner truck is exposed. There is where the truth of the extraordinary tree and its undeniable ability to outlive all other organisms lies. The bristlecone having the ability to outlive all other organisms can be questioned but instead of asking how it lives so long it should be questioned on the reasons for its lengthy pace to die. The bristlecone pine is known to grow in the White Mountains of eastern California. In that area conditions are not most desirable and ideal for plants to grow, however the bristlecone has managed to withstand the harsh conditions and surpass the hands of time. The White Mountains are an area that experiences short summers with a season for growing only being measured at several weeks. These mountains also adhere to strong dry winds that travel against rocky souls. These type of conditions cause any rain water that may fall to either drain off to fast for the plant to absorb or the water to just evaporate (Matthews, M). With such harsh conditions it is amazing that the bristlecone is still standing as the oldest living organism, unless it is because of these harsh conditions that the tree has such longevity. It mayShow MoreRelatedAn Article On Earth Essay10094 Words Ã |Ã 41 Pages This is a featured article. Click here for more information. Page semi-protected Listen to this article Earth From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the planet. For other uses, see Earth (disambiguation). Earth Astronomical symbol of Earth The Blue Marble photograph of Earth, taken by the Apollo 17 lunar mission. The Arabian peninsula, Africa and Madagascar lie in the upper half of the disc, while Antarctica is at the bottom. The Blue Marble photograph of Earth, taken duringRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words Ã |Ã 656 PagesAs the essays in this collection document in detail, paradox pervades the time span we call the twentieth century, no matter how it is temporally delineated. Never before in history, for example, had so many humans enjoyed such high standards of living, and never had so many been so impoverished or died of malnutrition and disease. If the period from the 1870s is included in a long twentieth century (and perhaps even if it is not), migration served as a mode of escape from oppression and poverty
Tuesday, December 10, 2019
Save water, save life Water is necessary for life. Water is needed for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes. Three-fourth of Earths surface is covered by water bodies. 97 per cent of this water is present in oceans as salt water and is unfit for human consumption. Fresh water accounts for only about 2.7 per cent. Nearly 70 per cent of this occurs as ice sheets and glaciers n Antarctica and other inaccessible places. Only one per cent of fresh water is available and fit for human use. So it is very important to conserve this precious resource. And yet we are contaminating the existing water resources with sewage, toxic chemicals and other wastes. Increasing population and rapid urbanisation has led to over-use of water resources leading to water pollution and scarcity. Water scarcity can be defined as a situation when people dont have enough water to fulfil their basic needs. India is one of the many countries that are facing water scarcity today. We will write a custom essay sample on Speech on save water save life or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In Rajasthan and some parts of Gujarat, women have to cover long distances on foot in order to get a pot of water. In cities like Bangalore, a family has to spend from Rs. 15 to Rs. 20 to meet their daily water needs. The problem becomes severe during summer months when availability of water decreases again. A recent study has revealed that about 25 per cent of urban population lack the accessibility to fresh water. Also there are several cases of privatisation of water bodies. This often leads to water scarcity in the nearby areas. There are different methods to deal with water scarcity. Rain water harvesting is the best and most suitable method. Forest and other vegetation cover reduce surface runoff and recharge ground water. So, practise afforestation. We can also promote water conservation through media and by conducting public awareness programmes. By practising these simple steps we can conserve water and ensure the availability of water to future generations. So dont tarry; start saving each and every drop of water. Let our motto be Ã¢â¬Å"Save water, save life, save the worldÃ¢â¬ . Save Water Save Life Water being one of the most essential necessity of life, becoming an increasing scare resource, needs careful planning and management. Availability of safe quality drinking water is being reduced due to pollution from sewage and industrial waste. So water should be meticulouslyÃ harnessed and carefully conserved. It should be economically used and safely disposed off after usage. The need of the hour is sustainable water management, specially in the context of meeting the demands of an increasing population. Simply put, it means managing our finite water resources for present needs while keeping in mind the future requirement of next generation. It also means looking at fresh water as an exhaustible, natural and essential resource and seeing watershed areas as sustainable units of water resource development and management. Uttarakhand State, whose glacial peaks and beautiful valleys hold age-old ecological secretes, is a measure water bank for North India. Its 1917 glaciers spreadi ng over 3550 Sq. km, comprise a perennial source of water. The state is largely made up of mountainous areas full of forest, which cradle many rivers and natural water sources. These natural sources are nourished by rain water, which is the biggest source of water on this planet. Ironically, today the people of these mountainous areas are in the vice-like grip of water scarcity. Increasing population has resulted in an unsustainable demand for water, soil erosion in watershed areas, increasing silting of rivers and streams, and depletion of groundwater reserves. Uttarakhand receives an average annual rainfall of 1240 mm, much of which flows into the rivers. If we conserved a bare 0.68% of this rainwater, it would fulfill the drinking water requirement of Uttarakhand. The conservation of 2.36% would suffice irrigation requirement. It means the conservation of a mere 3% of annual rainfall holds the key to the alleviation of the States woes! Considering the importance of water as a life sustaining resource we should launch intensive awareness campaigns for optimum water utilization and management. We should give information on different techniques of water collection, conservation and harvesting. To save water, the ground water table should be properly recharged by water harvesting schemes (making roof harvesting structures). The ancient Naulas, Dharas, Gadharas, Khals and Ponds should be protected from being polluted at their source because these are the main sources of drinking water schemes. The quality of drinking water should also be monitored. Further, linking water conservation programs with Income generating activities will also be beneficial. So water should be save and conserved.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Writing is one of the major factors of communication in the present and ancient world. One is able to pass information from one group of people to another through writing. Chinese writing, especially logographic writing system has been rated as the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest writing system.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Role of Writing in Imperial and Modern China specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This system was widely used than the alphabetical systems, and up to the 18th century more than half of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s library has the Chinese books including works of speculative thoughts, historical writings of different kinds and novels, along with writings on government and law (Perry 23). People rarely know the origin of Chinese writing; however, it is traced to have begun in the early second millennium BC (or Yin) dynasty (18thÃ¢â¬â12th century BC). Chinese language used to show more of ideas than the organiz ation of the language; this made Chinese language be thought of being a logographic type. For example, in Chinese, the identical sound pattern and each of these words are expressed by visual pattern that is distinctive (39). Literate Chinese Speakers mostly draw characters in the air to differentiate homophones (Ray Cleaveland 134). Writing started separately in some parts of Asia and Egypt. The Chinese orthography has its rules, which differ greatly with other forms of writing; this is what makes it unique among other writing systems (Qiu, Mattos Norman 12). Civilization was then brought due to the stability of the Chinese written language. Books that were able to include these interpretations in details were then published. Writing has, therefore, played a significant role in imperial China, as both the artistic pastime for cultured Chinese and the bureaucratic means to warrant the operation of state power. From a political viewpoint, writing has really boosted the way people lo ok at the politics of this country. China is one of the places that are experiencing legitimacy and this can be seen clearly on how parties present themselves to the people. Markedly, the style of presentation can either boost legitimacy or undermine it. Communist party in China has been seen presenting itself in an awkward way, which has resulted in erosion of traditional Confucian discipline of the state.Advertising Looking for essay on asian? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There is a belief that the one-party system is liable for ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s economic success, and that it will remain the dominant force for years to come. It is through writing that the above issues have been raised and made public (Perry 28). Even though the subject of republicanism has stayed to be significant until the present times, the legitimacy of sticking to one-party rule has made it face growing public discontent over widespread corruption among its political leaders. Evidently, the true picture of Chinese politics remains exposed through writing. Constitutionally, China is a Ã¢â¬Å"PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic,Ã¢â¬ but in real sense there has been nothing of such kind. Although China is independent, corrupt leaders dominate the country staining the image of this country. The politburo system was rejected in most parts of the communist world when the world war ended. The party has always left a bad record whenever it presents its manifesto for political reforms. While the new leaders seems to accept that the partyÃ¢â¬â¢s badly corrupted image is in urgent need of a makeover, no strong ideas have yet been brought forward (Ray Cleaveland 135). Even though reorganization of ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s political system can improve the current governance system, analysts tend to concentrate on Western democracy while neglecting to focus on modern China. Another famous writer also wrote that, in its narrowest sense, a republic is a politica l order in which the president is not a monarch. Thus, republicanism emphasizes politics by image (Qiu, Mattos Norman 156). The final source of legality is seen as the moral center that has been governed and on good discipline and is acknowledged by the entire community. Republicans in China have been seen campaigning for good morals specifying the qualification a good leader should possess. All the people who were supposed to work in the emperor in China were subjected to exams and interviews, where those who pass the recruitment process secure employment. Though this system worked exceptionally well, and gave out good results, the dynastic system later abolished it in 1911. Since the Modern republicanisms took the leadership, they were unable to take care of the political stability of the country, which resulted in its failure (Zhu 234).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Role of Writing in Imperial and Modern China specifically for you for only $16. 05 $11/page Learn More Chinese has always made writing to be the target of modern reforms. The reform plan, which was seen as the biggest program of change for at least 30 years in China, encompasses major social changes, which comprises of an easing of the One Child Policy and the abolition of Ã¢â¬Å"re-education through laborÃ¢â¬ camps. This was a strong sign that President Xi Jinping had proclaimed his authority at the controls of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s second biggest economy (Qiu, Mattos Norman 200). Xi said that reform and opening up would bring up a decision of the destiny of the modern China, which is also the key of realizing the dream of national transformation. Another reform that has been brought about through writing is the reform on production of movies. Many writes love China, as it always has the best writing skills and good people who can be able to interpret it well. He said that China is going to strengthen the protection of intellectual property and ownership rights. Through the industry of writing, Chinese government has seen the need of having a court of law that is able to protect writers against piracy. Most film producers have been happy since the introduction of these reforms, as they protect them from piracy. So many written materials try to describe how China can be able to develop in its cultural industries. Moreover, it specifies a clear direction saying that Beijing government would aim to Ã¢â¬Å"encourage the development of non-state owned cultural enterprisesÃ¢â¬ (Ray Cleaveland 202). They have also described how the government would encourage state owned cultural enterprises to change their systems in order to become shareholder enterprises. This could be a reference to organization and companies such as the state-owned film Colossus China Film Group, which has a stock market plan listing for years. There was great emphasis on business privatization in this context together with putting barriers to publicatio ns. As it had been thought, the wider plan mostly tackles the economic reform, but in the social areas, there is a wider change than what anyone had been expecting.Advertising Looking for essay on asian? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Government support that include financial support, education, or even construction of good social amenities can support current artists in constructing the meaning of writing. The government has already accepted to support writers through financial support and strengthen copyright policy. Notably, these reforms are intended to spread cultural exchanges and promote international contact and external discourse system, to boost Chinese culture to the world (Perry 137). Even though, this document is great in covering a wider area, it does not elaborate the whole essence of Chinese writings. There are five things, which have been tackled through writing. Innovations in the field of science are the first concept that writing has put forth. China as a country is now at a critical juncture where it needs to build on the past through effective planning in writing. Even though it faces both the challenges and opportunities, it must consider ways of achieving such developments. The congressÃ¢â ¬â¢s feedback include, China needs to continue putting more emphasis on economic development. However, investing in education and science is one of the vital things that need to be considered keenly given that education is the source of every innovation and development. The major aim is to improve peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lifestyles and raise their living standards by providing employment to the unemployed. Economic growth can only be met if the government is going to improve its infrastructure, make sure its political systems are respectable, and make sure the countries core values are protected. The urge brought about through the approach that put more emphasis of the well-being of ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s people and stresses comprehensive, holistic sustainable and best development is what the writer a Ã¢â¬Å"scientific outlook on developmentÃ¢â¬ describes (Perry 97). Secondly, a change in the writing policy will result in improvements and opening up of ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s democratic space. Young Ch inese writers have also emerged with their books trying to bring reforms to this country. Author Yang Zewei is among those who want to show how they feel the country needs to move on through their literary writings (Zhu 123). Young writers have also emerged fighting for transformation of China; they claim to educate the public on the ways to be reformed and educated. In June, Bai Ye was heard acknowledging the work of these young authors. The emergence of young authors made the longtime critic relieved given the immediate substitute by the brilliant group. Another writer, Xing An, who is planning another publication have an urge of showing the post 1980 generationÃ¢â¬â¢s real power and want to show them that they need to play superior roles in the writersÃ¢â¬â¢ club (Qiu, Mattos Norman 200). Chinese president has also been quoted praising the writers for their recommendable job. He said that writers are to be aware of the sacred mission assigned to them by the times and the cit izens. In the speech he gave out, Hu challenged writers to focus mostly their writings in principles of Ã¢â¬Å"Serve the people and serve SocialismÃ¢â¬ He added that writers should get close to real life issues and solution to problems that people encounter. They need to uphold the spirit of Chinese nationality and produce a greater number of greater works that will live up to the history, the times, and the people (Zhu 136). He acknowledged the effort of writers, which they put in promoting development and prosperity of the socialist culture, saying that artistic undertakings are important parts of the socialist cause with ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s own greater section of socialist culture. Hu claimed that the responsibility of writers and artists is inimitable for the larger development of the Chinese country making them win the trust of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the citizens as well. Writers club has truly helped Chinese writers in expressing what China as a country need to d o and what writers should do as well (Zhu 138). Chinese writers have used writing to preserve their culture by noting down their past cultural practices, as well as noting down the origin of the entire society. For example, the ruling systems and practices of most kingdoms and empires in the ancient China have guided current leaders in modifying their ruling systems in order to handle different regions within the expansive country. An example of the Han dynasty, which is one of the most pronounced Empires of Chinese development. Definitely, Han Empire reigned in China between 206 BC and AD 220, extended its boundaries, and firmly established its administration (Ray and Cleaveland 205). In addition, its governing system has existed in the cultural history of China and embraced among by the current generations. During the years when this empire administrated, there were various changes especially in the western region. Apparently, there was amendment of the extravagant law of Qin Dyna sty and establishments of the most comprehensive cultural ruling. These cultural rulings were Confucianism, which was a set of ethical beliefs acquired from the teachings one of the Chinese scholars called Confucius. During this time, writing helped to keep traces of law modifications and changes in operations of the state. Notably, writers could advocate for alterations of cultures considered backward by the Chinese people. Presently, cultural modifications have taken center stage in which writers have played part of the role in bringing out the uncouth practices that need urgent reforms. Current Chinese writers use writing to streamline the society in line with the expected economic, social, and political development. Writers have been at the forefront in outlining procedures and steps that the government can adopt to increase their performance in order to remain competitive in the present world. Even though writers have been using writing to pass vital information to the public a nd the government, most of them have faced stringent opposition from the targeted bodies, especially government agencies. For example, writing as a powerful tool of transforming society in the political aspect is tricky if the theme of the writing intends to correct government practices. Again, opposing a deeply rooted cultural practice in the society has also made writers face constant rebellions. Although China has been promoting writing all through, some foreign writers are pulling out from Chinese market. For example, in 2003 writer Hillary Rodham Clinton pulled out from Chinese market citing use of her content without her consent. Another writer, Mr. Qiu, who was born in China, but writes English books said he reluctantly agreed to some alterations though he found many had been done without his knowledge too (Qiu, Mattos, and Norman 213). He added that some corrections only make the book lose its theme; this made him not to allow his fourth publication in China after having bee n banned for three consecutive times (214). In most of their works, writers inculcate themes that citizens feel are vital for the betterment of their lives, both from the cultural dimension and from political perspective. Clearly, writing played essential roles in Imperial China, and continues to play the same function in modern China. Works Cited Perry, Elizabeth J. Grassroots political reform in contemporary China. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2007. Print. Qiu, Xigui, Gilbert Louis Mattos, and Jerry Norman. Chinese writing. Berkeley, Calif.: Society for the Study of Early China and the Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, 2000. Print. Ray, Katie Wood, and Lisa B. Cleaveland. About the authors: writing workshop with our youngest writers. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2004. Print. Zhu, Xinmin. Communist ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s political reform and political development. Taipei: World Anti-Communist League, China Chapter:, 1987. Print. This essay on Role of Writing in Imperial and Modern China was written and submitted by user Kyr0n to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
? Essay, Research Paper Back in history, there were plagiarists that surrounded Hong Kong and European states. They would look for hoarded wealths and maintain an oculus for gold. A rider ship was one of the few ships that pirates look for since it contained jewellery and money from the people. It was easy to make. Just get in, take what you need, and acquire out. The passangers would non contend, nor would they seek to be brave and acquire their necessities back. Plagiarists could acquire in and out speedy ; therefore, the governments neer were able to come to the deliverance in clip. Well, that was back so. Present twenty-four hours of the engineering age has changed the plagiarists target. They eventually have found a place to acquire their hoarded wealths. No, it is non gilded or Ag. Simple, it # 8217 ; s warez. What is warez? It is a to the full downloadable files on the Internet that are given free to others. We will write a custom essay sample on Is The Internet The New Pirates Home or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Programmers that make package for microsoft, prophet, corel, and many other companies are victims to this Internet scandel. Alternatively of purchasing package, you can merely travel download it for free. No fuss, no jobs. Oh yea, this is bing the computing machine industry more than a 100 billion dollars. Yup, these are the yearss of the plagiarists. They have eventually found a topographic point to populate in on land and have a computing machine. They get into file transfer protocol sites or net sites and expression for warez. Then, they get out before the FBI or any other security can acquire them. These plagiarists are around the universe. They could be populating in the large metropolis or in a small prarie farm. All they need is a phone line and a modem. No more paying $ 50 for package, merely acquire it on the Internet. That # 8217 ; s the slogan. You can name it warez, wares, whatever. Can you believe music is another illegal thing traveling on the cyberspace? It # 8217 ; s a compressed vocal utilizing mp3 format. Some creative persons like it, many others hate it. Lots of money is being lost, as Cadmiums can merely be downloaded on the Internet. You might be inquiring yourself, what # 8217 ; s the large trade? Sounds like something I would wish to make. I guess I can # 8217 ; t assist fillet you but I can seek. Let # 8217 ; s put it this manner, you get a $ 40,000 mulct for downloading warez or mp3s. When you could merely travel to the shop and acquire it for a batch less. Why hazard acquiring fined $ 40,000 when you can merely make the ordinary and good thing? I guess you might state the plagiarists # 8217 ; heads have still stayed the same. They # 8217 ; rhenium still eyeing the gold.
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Chem 17 Reviewer (1st Exam) Essays Chem 17 Reviewer (1st Exam) Essay Chem 17 Reviewer (1st Exam) Essay CHEMISTRY 17 1ST LONG EXAM REVIEWER I. ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF ATOMS -arrangement of atomsÃ¢â¬â¢ electrons -the number of electrons in an atom -distribution of electrons around the nucleus and their energies ATOMS *Billiard Ball Model (JOHN DALTON) *Plum Pudding Model (JOSEPH J. THOMPSON) *RUTHERFORDÃ¢â¬â¢s Model of Atom -atoms are tiny, hard, indivisible spheres -electrons (negative charge) occupy the atom Atom is mostly empty space with a dense nucleus PROBLEMS with RutherfordÃ¢â¬â¢s Model According to laws of physics, RutherfordÃ¢â¬â¢s atom should collapse *The model CANNOT explain differences in properties of elements *The model CANNOT explain the colors emitted by elements when heated A. THE QUANTUM MODELS (WAVE) -formed through studies about light DESCRIBING ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE *Wavelength (? Ã¢â¬ lambdaÃ¢â¬ ) -distance between two adjacent peaks or troughs (m) *Frequency (? Ã¢â¬ nuÃ¢â¬ ) number of cycles(complete wavelengths) that pass a given point each sec ond (Hz or /s) **Wavelength is inversely proportional to frequency. Where: c= 3. 00 x 10? m/s B. QUANTIZED ENERGY AND PHOTONS Blackbody Radiation oPerfect absorber and emitter of light oAt high temperature, solids emit radiation oRadiation depends on the temperature not in the element the solid is made from. oPREDICTION: Ã¢â¬Å"As temperature increases, the frequency of light emitted also increases. Ã¢â¬ oOBSERVATION: There was a peak. Photoelectric Effect and Photons oWhen a beam of light shines on a certain surface (e. g. some metals), electrons are ejected. oThe effect is instantaneous. PREDICTION: Ã¢â¬ It will take time for effect to be observedÃ¢â¬ ; Ã¢â¬Å"and light will produce the effect, given enough timeÃ¢â¬ oOBSERVATION: Effect is instantaneous. There is a minimum frequency of light needed to produce the effect. o**Ã¢â¬ If frequency of light is below a certain value called the threshold frequency, the number of electrons will be ejected. Ã¢â¬ o**Ã¢â¬ If i ntensity of light is increased, flow of current also increases. Ã¢â¬ QUANTUM THEORY (Max Planck *1858-1947*) oQuantum (fixed amount) Ã¢â¬â smallest quality oEach particle corresponds to certain energy. Planck proposed that the minimum amount of radiant energy that can gain or lose is related to the frequency of radiation. oÃ¢â¬ Radiation consists of packets/quantum of energy (PHOTONS *name given by G. N. Lewis*). Ã¢â¬ oQuantum Theory: Ã¢â¬Å"Energy is quantized. It can only have certain allowed values. Ã¢â¬ oEnergy of radiation is proportional to the frequency of radiation. Higher frequency ? More energy; Lower wavelength ? More energy oMonochromatic light consists of photons with the same frequency or same energy. oIntensity of the light depends on the number of photons emitted per second. EinsteinÃ¢â¬â¢s Explanation on the Photoelectric Effect Light consisting of energy packets hit the metal and their energy is absorbed by the electrons. oOne packet of energy (phot on) hits the metal surface, one electron is emitted. oIf energy of a bundle is not enough, it will not be able to dislodge electron from the attraction of the atomic nuclei. No photoelectric effect. oIf energy of a bundle is enough (equal to the threshold energy). It will dislodge an electron from the attraction of the atomic nuclei. oEnergy in excess of energy to dislodge electron (in excess of the threshold energy) becomes kinetic energy of the electron. Higher energy/ frequency of light ? more excess energy ? Higher kinetic energy of electron C. LINE SPECTRA AND THE BOHR MODEL Line Spectra oMonochromatic radiation is composed of single wavelength. oSpectrum is produced when radiation from light is separated into different wavelength components. oContinuous spectrum ?ROYGBIV, containing light of all wavelength oLine spectrum ?Spectrum containing radiation of only specific wavelengths BohrÃ¢â¬â¢s Model (Spectra of Hydrogen Atom) oAssumed that electron move in circular orbits arou nd the nucleus oPOSTULATES: Only orbits of certain radii, corresponding to certain definite energies, are permitted for the electron in a hydrogen atom. ?An electron in a permitted orbit has a specific energy and is in an allowed energy state. An electron in an allowed energy state will not spiral into the nucleus. ?Energy is transmitted or absorbed by the electron only as the electron changes from one allowed energy state to another. This energy is emitted or absorbed as a photon, E= h?. For electron to move farther from the nucleus, it needs more potential energy. oDistance from the nucleus of an allowed orbit, n. Energy of the electron in the allowed orbit, n. oApplications ?Fireworks ?Use of emission spectroscopy to analyse for the presence of elements. Success of Bohr Model oIt successfully predicted the frequencies of the lines in the hydrogen spectrum oIt introduced the concept of discrete energy levels of electron in atoms and the first quantum number, n. oThe model failed to predict energy levels for atoms with more than 1 electron. (if 2/more electrons are present, the electrons repel) D. THE WAVE BEHAVIOR OF MATTER Louis de Broglie (1892-1987) Ã¢â¬Å"Depending on the experimental circumstances, radiation appears to have either a wavelike or a particle-like (photon) character. Ã¢â¬ o**As the electron moves about the nucleus, it is associated with a particular wavelength. The characteristic wavelength of the electron, or of any particle, depends on its mass, m, and moving at speed, v. oThe quantity mv for any object is its momentum. oMatter waves, wave characteristic of material particles. oThis hypothesis is found to be applicable to all matter; any object of mass and velocity would give rise to a characteristic matter wave. Uncertainty Principle -There is an inherent uncertainty in the precision with which we can simultaneously specify the position and momentum of a particle. This uncertainty is significant only for particles of extremely small mass, such as electrons. oWerner Heisenberg (1901-1976) ?Ã¢â¬Å"The dual nature of matter places a fundamental limitation on how precisely we can know both the location and the momentum of any object. The limitation becomes important only when we deal with matter at the subatomic level (that is with masses as small as that of an electron). Ã¢â¬ E. QUANTUM MECHANICS AND ATOMIC ORBITALS Erwin Schr? dinger (1887-1961) oQuantum physics opened a new treatment of atoms, electrons, ions and molecules: by describing it mathematically oUsed BroglieÃ¢â¬â¢s hypothesis that electrons can be described as a wave. oSolutions to the equation are called wave functions (energy state of an atom). ?WAVE FUNCTIONS: ?Only certain wave functions are allowed. An electron can only have certain energy states: the energy of the electron is quantized. ?They are called orbitals. ?Its square (? ) is called either probability density or the electron density. Mathematical description of a region in space where an electron has some probability of being found. ?Each wave function (or each energy state/orbital) is characterized by a set of 3 quantum numbers: n, l, ml oSchr? dingerÃ¢â¬â¢s theory chose to define the energy of the electron precisely. Therefore, according to the uncertainty principle, this would result in a large uncertainty finding the locatio n of the electron. oWhen the Schr? dingerÃ¢â¬â¢s equation for the H-atom is solved, the resulting wave functions contain 3 integral numbers called quantum numbers. Orbitals and Quantum Numbers oWhat for? ?Solutions to wave equations given ?Energy of electron ?Probable location of electron ?Identify an orbital oTo identify an orbital, we use THREE quantum numbers. oTo describe an electron, we use FOUR quantum numbers. Principal Quantum Number (n) a. n defines a main energy level or a principal shell b. the size of orbital and energy of orbital depends mainly on n c. As n increases, there will be higher energy of electrons and the farther is the distance of the electron from the nucleus. Azimuthal Quantum Number (l) a. Each value of l defines a type of sublevel or subshell, or an orbital type. b. Thus, we speak of op sublevel/ p orbitals od sublevel/ d orbitals c. Allowed values: positive integer values (from O ? (n-1)) d. Orbitals and sublevels are designated by letters. e. Determines the shape of the orbital. Value of l012345 Letter designatedspdfgh Magnetic Quantum Number (ml) a. Describe the 3D orientation of the orbital b. Gives the number of orbitals in a given substance c. Orbitals in some sublevel have same energy but differ in orientation in space called degenerate orbitals. . Value depends on l. e. Allowed values from Ã¢â¬âl to +l. Spin Quantum Number (ms) a. Pauli Exclusion Principle oNo 2 electrons in the same atom can have exactly same energy. b. Energies of orbital for H-atom. oFor 1 electron H-atom, orbitals on the same energy level have same energy. They are degenerate. oEnergy of the orbitals of H-atom depends only on the principal quantum number, n. oEnergies of Orbitals As num ber of electron increase, so do the repulsion interactions among them. oSubshells in a Principal Shell have different energies: s
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Are all personality disorders treatable Why has this become an important issue - Essay Example However, most of the work regarding this subject has been on the psychoanalytic side. The same is the case with treatment approaches and literature (Benjamin, pp. 8-46, 2002). Almost all of the experts (Millon, Millon, Grossman, Meagher, & Ramnath, pp. 36-39, 2004) conceptually have the same opinion on the idea that the best way to go about the treatment of personality disorders is to discover, classify, categorize and modify the basic and foundation causes of the same. However, the cognitive therapy experts and psychoanalysts differ in their thoughts at the next stage. The cognitive therapy theorists hold the view that personality disorders and its products are realizable by the subject or patient and at times all this is happening under the consciousness of the subject. On the other hand, psychoanalysts think the opposite way. For them, personality disorders and their outcomes are unconscious to the subject and they are not aware of it at all. It is interesting to note here that few of the people go to doctors or clinical psychologists with complaints regarding personality disorders. Despite the fact that there are many people around the world with personality disorders; however, only a few of them are aware of it. Most of them go to doctors with complaints like depression, stress, aggressive behavior and others (Benjamin, pp. 8-46, 2002). More importantly, they view their problematic behavior a product of the external environment. The think they are the victims of the situation going on and they have little or no contribution in their behavior. The problem here is that since they do not think they are responsible for their behavior therefore they also look out for solutions to their problems without realizing the fact that even they can contribute to change themselves. One can find these people saying, Ã¢â¬Å"I have always been this way,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"this is the way I
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
The great pacific patch - Essay Example The western and the eastern garbage patches form the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. Larger proportion of the patch consists of the plastic that is not bio-degradable but instead, photodegradable releasing small plastic particles that are harmful to marine animals. The particles act like sponge that soak toxic chemicals in the sea and suspend on the sea water and seabed sediments. When fish and other marine animals feed on them, they may die and their predators may have less to feed on causing successive deaths (Curtin & Belcher, 2008). Changes in the sea life for algae and other marine life also affect human life. For example, changes in water temperatures disturb the numbers of bacteria and fungi in the waters with negative consequences on marine animals and fish. Fish is essential for the growing human population and diseases arising from microorganisms affect food attainability. Wastes from factories cause harm to these organisms and can as well poison wildlife and humans. Wastes from industries also lead to declining of the sea grasses and reduced pathogenic potentials. Sea skaters also lay their eggs on flotsam objects such as pumice and seashells. Increased number of plastic wastes in the seas and large water bodies has increased egg concentrations in the gyre area because the plastic garbage provides surface for laying of these eggs. The marine wastes can also disturb the food webs at the sea in the north pacific gyre. Planktons and algae on the basement of the sea use sunlight to make their own food. The trash that collects on the surface of water blocks the sunlight from reaching planktons and algae which are the most common autotrophs in the food web. The entire food web may change because fish and other small animals that feed on the planktons and algae will have less to feed on and as a result may die. The predators that feed on these fish will also be affected and the food web will be affected in whole (Bowler, Karl, & Colwell,
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Role Model Considerations Essay Through the discussions and readings, I gained extensive insight on the many aspects related to teaching. A teacher holds a respectable position in society and he should always try to maintain this through his conduct. A teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s primary duty is to teach. But in order to successfully do his duty, it is not just sufficient to be excellent in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s subject. His class performance is judged not only on the basis of how he is teaching but also on the basis of how he is interacting in class. He should also try to be honest in other activities of school apart from teaching. I can confidently say that the readings and discussions have helped me in successfully achieving the three learning objectives of this week. It is extremely important to identify the potential impact of controversial personal conduct on employment and licensure. To be an honest teacher does not just imply an honest dissemination of knowledge but also points towards the rules and regulations set by the school authorities that a teacher should follow at any cost. Even if one is a good teacher, if he is dishonest in other activities of the school he should be considered unfit to continue with his job. This implies in the areas relating to boundary violations between teacher and students and issues relating to appropriate and inappropriate forms of communication with students as well. If a teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s character is not good, the students do not respect him. Ultimately if things go out of hand he may not only have to face a lot of shame for his misconducts but he might even get fired from his job. In my future endeavors I would make use of the facts that as a teacher one should be well versed with the rules and regulations of the institution he is teaching in. He should know the areas in which a student should be reprimanded and the issues in which the students have full rights. He should keep a check on his conducts and should never intentionally or unintentionally cross the line that is supposed to be between a teacher and a student. If a teacher is able to achieve all this he always remains in the hearts of the students long after they have passed out. A teacher should try to be an inspiration and not someone who is criticized and made fun of.
Friday, November 15, 2019
Business Plan for Restaurant in India THAKURS HAVELI is the name of my restaurant which is located at sector-34 in Chandigarh. This is a single unit, large size restaurant that serve or provide a healthy contemporary style food. . The location will be on 34 sec just outside the Chandigarh University and very close to a dense population of the target market. Location which is selected is first on rental basis. After that there is agreement of lease. After when the lease is signed there will be the 3 year of free rent for construction and in that particular course of time start up fund must be raised. After that work is complete Havel restaurant can open and then project can begin. Basically, restaurant infrastructure is a four-storey `building. The ground floor is a fast food junction where you will find Chinese, South-Indian, and American fast food, the first floor is for having lunch and dinner where you can seat with your family and enjoy wide variety of food, the second floor is for Beverages where you will find soft drinks, ice-creams and chocolates with the enjoyment of some games for kids and young ones and the third floor is for people who would like to have hard drinks such as whisky, rum, beer etc. Here you will find food of about 65 countries, new games to play and whiskies at it best. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY As the name of our business is self explanatory that we are one of the best in the business of restaurant not only in Chandigarh but also in India. We have cook of world class that means we select cook from one of the best institution of hotel management so that our customers do not get upset after coming to our restaurant. Here, we provide food of about 65 nations i.e. nearly 1000 dishes either vegetarian or non-vegetarian and as we said earlier we having a bar at the top floor having all types of whiskies, rums, beer etc. COMPANY OWNERSHIP The owner of the company is Ujjwal Galleria, who will handle day-to-day operations of the plan and will work to ensure that this business venture is a success. He will be started this restaurant in 2011, at that time it consists of only single floor but in only 5years he will be grown his restaurant in such a way that able to compete with Indias one of the best restaurants. OBJECTIVES The primary objective of ours is to satisfy customers by our products and services. Therefore we offer a range of packages and services specifically tailored to the needs of each customer. KEYS TO SUCCESS Service our clients needs promptly and efficiently. Maintain excellent working relationships with our staffs such as Managers, Cook and other staffs. Maintain a professional image at all times. CURRENT SITUATION Now days, people are a bit foodies and want to try new and food of other nations too. This is reason why the restaurants becoming so popular in India. Another reason is that people of especially metropolitan cities have a very busy life especially the bachelors who are living away from their home and doing job on cites prefers to eat in restaurants than in their home. This is because they have very busy schedule and they got exhausted after doing job from morning to evening, thus prefers to eat in the restaurants. This scenario is also very common in families as most the family members are busy in their scheduled work in week days and as they got time they used to go to in restaurants to have dinner for a break. Due to this there were many restaurants are being opened in the cities and as a result of which there is so much competition among the restaurants. But despite all such competitions our Thakur Restaurant is able to lead this market in Chandigarh. The all credit is given to Mr. Ujjwal Guleria who made all this possible. INDUSTRY ANALYSIS Several new and innovative technique of cooking is a part of the factor responsible for the growth of restaurants in India. Since the government of India has a policy of liberalization of India today is also a base on the market. According to the survey of the growth of restaurant industry in India is about 5.5%. Many people are also engaged in catering. According to recent survey that was created at the end of 2012, total restaurant in all parts of the world will offer employment to 34.7million people. The fact is the growth of the hospitality industry in India will directly lead to more fast food, because in todays world, young people prefer fast food, not just a fact that the growth of the restaurant is increasing every day. International restaurant opens branches in different parts of the city through the concept of free market and the process of liberization, creating foreign investment. Future of the restaurant is very bright in India. With an increase in the growth in demand from the industry also increased. DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT Our restaurant is a single unit, medium size and multiple restaurants that serve or provide a healthy contemporary style food. The restaurant will be located at 34 sec in Chandigarh. Our Mission I give my first preference toward to goal of the firm. I tried my best to achieve this goal. Development and Status This restaurant (Ujjwal Restaurant) was incorporated in October 2005. Mr. Ujjwal Galleria is the first responsibility is to the financial well being of the restaurant. The high level of understanding, attitude and self respect between our staff member and to the customer. The location is only 34 seconds outside Chandigarh University and near large populations of the target market. Location was chosen for the first time on rental basis. Then there is a lease. Once, when the lease is signed there will be three years free rent for the building and in particular, that over time you start the fund should be increased. After it is completed, Thakur restaurant can be opened and then the project can begin. Future Plan If my business is successfully meeting its projection with in 2 year .then after that I would like to created or start for a second location and start making a plan for next unit. Our 7 year goal is to have 5 restaurants in different part of India having a profit of between 10000000 to 20000000. OPERATIONAL AND PRODUCTION PLANS The following operational and production strategies that taken in the Thakur Restaurants. They are: Facilities and Offices This type of plan, I would say for equipment and office, where it is located. The restaurant covers 10,000 square meters, which is around in 34sec Punjab University Chandigarh. New equipment was used and the dining room has been decorated to attract customers. Employee Training and Education In this plan I never make any compromises. Training of all employees should be required. Employees are trained not only work, but also whole concept. There is a cook who wanted to give all the detailed information and also informed of the latest information in fording the industry. Food Production Food production is also an important point in production plan. I will make most food on the premises basis. Kitchen will be very clean and totally furnished. High standard equipment would be used. System Control In this a large amount of money spent in research the quality and integrity of our food. A person is hire who do all this type of research related to quality of food. All this food cost and stock are controlled by the management which is totally computerized basis. PRODUCTION PLAN The following are the Production plan of our restaurant. They are: Our restaurant will offer a large variety of food (Indian, Italian, and Spanish). It also includes a medium scale coffee shop inside it and having a bar at the top floor. Restaurant is divided into three parts Want open a fast food for those who want to eat fast food can sit in this section. Want open for meal (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) those who want to eat this kind of food can sit in this section only. Want open coffee shop and bar or just a room for discussion where people sit and talk with his friend or any one without disturbing other. MARKETING PLAN Our marketing plan is to establish a well-regarded brand name linked to a meaningful positioning. We will have to invest heavily in market to create a distinctive brand image projecting innovation, quality and value. We also measure awareness and response so we can adjust our market efforts if required. Market Need While preparing a market plan we should know the market need. That which type of market we want or need. There are two type of market need that ant to fill. They are: First one is that to make a market that produce good quality food, having cleanliness environment, with a cheap or low rate. Second one it that to take very few time for preparing the order. In modern life we face many problems in the restaurant. The first is that the food is fat and the other is that they take too much time preparing. So keep all this in view I would like a market offering good quality food in less time allows. I would like to add a coffee shop inside the restaurant to open. This is used for all but especially for those who just want coffee after dinner or lunch. Demographics This is used to tell that our business marketing plan focus on the following category: Student = this include the student of schools and different university situated near by age is from 18 to 20. Town worker = this include the worker or person working in a firm. Thus is the largest group. Age is from 35 to 55 Tourist = this is the person who just come with their family for enjoying. This makes good market for us. Age is from 40 to 69. Advertising After that I would like to spend on advertising. As this is only the medium by which we can make our sale or increase sale. If my business running significantly over our sale then it is not require to spent huge amount of fund in advertising. HUMAN RESOURCE PLAN Ujjwal Restaurant is a unique Human Resources Management restaurant that enables the process of acquiring talent, aligning them with organizations goals and leading the transformation, to help your organization take that leap in performance. From automating routine tasks, to generating strategic reports, to giving access to employee related information through self-service, Ujjwal Restaurant does it all. Our key Modules include Performance Management, Training Development, and recruitment, HR Workgroup and Report/Analytics, Payroll, Self-Service. As far human resources plan concerns it is just about how you manages your employees, thus, the management of employees in our business is as follows: In our restaurant, there are nearly 200 employees, including lower to higher level. As we have one Head Manager who manages all the employees in the restaurant so his salary is a bit higher than the any other employee. We have head in each of the branch of the restaurant such as in cooking department, fast food department, and beverage and games department and bar department. We select employees such as cook, managers, bar server etc. who are passed out from good institution and have at least 2 to 3 years of work experience. ASSESSMENT OF RISK The purpose of risk assessment is to identify hazards that could cause harm to the risks that may result from these dangers and take appropriate measures to eliminate or control risks. Significant findings of the risk assessment should be recorded if five or more persons. Risk assessment of cumulative event distribution and can be made when information was received from the contractor, other companies and freelancers working on the site. It will also need to see the site or sites of specific identified risks to visit. The followings are the main risks in the business if the restaurants: There are many competitors in north region such as McDonald, prÃ ªt fast food, residency, virtual this are the competitor in northern region. McDonald is the one the best competitor for our business. It is having a more than 6 franchisee in the northern region. They spend huge amount on advertising. They take the help of all medium such as radio, television, news paper. They also offering some discount after you make the bill of 400. The reason of risk is fluctuation in the share market. FINANCIAL PLAN Financial planning is a process of formulating objectives, evaluation of assets and resources, assessment of future financial needs and plan to revise the monetary targets. Many elements may be involved in financial planning including investments, asset allocation and risk management. Taxes, insurance and real estate are usually included. There is some important point which I kept in mind while making a financial plan. They are as follows: Growth rate will be moderate, and in smooth running. Sale would like to increase at a flow of 6% per year. 3. Company like to invest in financial plan and not in the. Company (expect it be necessary) Cost of good. Marketing Fees Marketing fees is generally for purchasing the material for production and convert them into finished product. This is also important one we should reserve some amount of fund for purchasing of raw material. Fixed and Variable Expense This fixed and variable expense is also required in our financial plan. As this expense is only determine by when we survey many restaurant after that we taking actual number from this restaurant which we survey. As by this we can know our fixed and variable expense.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Concern over the quality of health care services in Bangladesh has led to loss of faith in low utilization of public health facilities, and increasing outflow of Bangladeshi patients to private hospitals. The public health sector is plagued by uneven demand and perceptions of poor quality. Countrywide, the underutilization of available facilities is of significant concern. For example, one study shows that the overall utilization rate for public health care services is as low as 30% (Ricardo et al. 004). Moreover, the trend of utilization of public health care services has been declining between 1999 and 2003, while the rate of utilization of private health care facilities for the same period has been increasing (CIET Canada 2003). The unavailability of doctors and nurses, as well as their negative attitudes and behaviors, are major hindrances to the utilization of public hospitals. The situation is further compounded by lack of drugs, and long travel and waiting times (HEU 2003a). What is particularly disturbing is the lack of empathy of the service providers, their generally callous and casual demeanor, their aggressive pursuit of monetary gains, their poor levels of competence and, occasionally, their disregard for the suffering that patients endure without being able to voice their concernsÃ¢â¬âall of these service failures are reported frequently in the print media. Such failures can play a powerful role in shaping patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ negative attitudes and dissatisfaction with health care service providers and health care itself. The private health care sector also deserves close scrutiny as about 70% of the patients seek medical care from this sector (World Bank 2003). Between 1996 and 2000, private hospitals grew around 15% per annum (HEU 2003b). Benefits of going to private hospitals than public hospitals: 1. Reliability: Reliability refers to providersÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately. Private hospitals provides good compatible doctors in some cases they have foreign physicians or specialist, who gives treatment here in visiting basis. They have high-tech machineries which gives accurate and precise results. Supervision of patients is also good for patients who are admitted here. Where public hospital mostly runs with inter doctors who newly started their work. Their medical tests are not that much reliable, as due to inefficient staff and back-dated machinery. 2. Responsiveness: Private hospital staffs respond promptly when needed. The requirement equipments are available, functional and able to provide quick diagnoses of diseases. Also prescribed drugs are available and properly administered. But in public hospitals the response is not that much quick, with lack of proper equipments. The prescribed drugs are not that much available. 3. Assurance: here in private hospitals, with knowledge, skill and courtesy of the doctors and nurses can provide a sense of assurance that they have the patient's best interest in mind. They deliver their services with integrity, fairness and beneficence. In the health care system, assurance is embodied in service providers who correctly interpret laboratory reports, diagnose the disease competently, provide appropriate explanations to queries, and generate a sense of safety. But the public hospitals give a totally opposite impression. 4. Discipline: In Private hospitals the doctors maintain proper visiting schedules and that there are structured visiting hours for relatives, friends, etc. A clean and organized appearance of a hospital, its staff, its premises, restrooms, equipment, wards and beds are visible. The practices of paying Ã¢â¬ËBaksheeshÃ¢â¬â¢ (an informal but small facilitation payment) are strictly prohibited here. Conclusion: This contention was largely supported since private hospitals obtained better ratings than public hospitals on most of the measures of responsiveness, communication, and discipline. These differences suggest that private hospitals are playing a meaningful role in society, justifying their existence, continuation.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Before we discuss about the meaning, definition, nature, scope and importance of public administration we will try to know what is administration, organisation and management. As these terms are often used interchangeably and synonymously, it is pertinent to know the differences and distinctions between these three terms. According to William Schulze Administration is the force, which lays down the object for which an organisation and its management are to strive and the broad policies under which they are to operate. An Organisation is a combination of the necessary human beings, materials, tools, equipment and working space, appurtenances brought together in systematic and effective co-relation to accomplish some desired object. Management is that which leads guides and directs an organisation for the accomplishment of pre-determined object. To put the above in simple terms, administration sets the goal, management strives to attain it and organisation is the machine of the management for the attainment of the ends determined by the administration. Some scholars have a different view about the administration and management. According to Peter Drucker management is associated with the business activity, which has to show economic performance, whereas administration is associated with the non business activities like activities of the Government. The other view is that administration is associated with performing routine things in known settings in accordance with certain procedures, rules, and regulations. The Management is associated with performing functions like risk taking, dynamic, creative and innovative functions. Some scholars of Public Administration are closely associated with the first view that is, administration is a determinative function. Management, on other hand is an executive function that is primarily concerned with carrying out the broad policies laid down by the administration.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Fabrication and Characterization of semiconductor nanowires by using Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) templates.
Fabrication and Characterization of semiconductor nanowires by using Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) templates. Fabrication and Characterization of semiconductor nanowires by using Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) templates.Introduction:-Great interest has been focused on one - dimensional materials, including nanowires and nanodots , because of their unique structure and properties as well as potential applications in electronics and optical devices.(1)Much effort has been focused on nanostructure formation by self - organizing methods , among them , the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates have received considerable attention in synthetic nanostructure material due to their particular characters (2), such asHave high porosities ( 1011 pores/cm2 ).Easley be prepared in the Lab. With good control over the size (length diameter) of the pores.Very good periodicity of the pore arrangement can also be obtained.Porous alumina forms on the surface of aluminum in a self - organized manner when anodized in an acid under specific conditions. Such templates have recently emerged as an important self - asse mbly method for nanofabrication (3).TheyEnglish: SEM image of ZnO nanowires on copper subs...can be used in different methods to synthesize self - assembled arrays of nanowires of a variety of materials, such as metals, semiconductors, alloys, and multilayers. Two of the standard methods that are being used are AC and DC electodeposition. Morphology and characteristics of the nanowires can easily be achieved by releasing the nanowires from the template. Magnetic, electric, transport and optical measurements all contribute toward the exploration of the fundamental properties of nanostructure materials and point toward their technological potential.In this proposal research, electrodeposition semiconductor nanowires was obtained by AC plating as well as by DC deposition. The morphology of semiconductor nanowires was studied by AFM and SEM. The electric , electronic and optical measurements was also achieved by using different suitable equipments.Research background:-In the electrodepo sition process , a thin conducting metal film , such as gold ,
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Analysis of Enriques Journey Book Enriques Journey experience brings into view the kind of problems one undergoes in the process of attaining their goals in life (Border Film Project 6). This shows that age is not a factor in achieving ones dreams and therefore determination wins it all. Life can be filled with several obstacles such as being an immigrant but the need to overcome such problems and excel defines the life and experience of Enrique who has to travel as an immigrant to meet his mother, have a relationship with Maria Isabela (Nazario 230).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Analysis of Ã¢â¬Å"EnriqueÃ¢â¬â¢s JourneyÃ¢â¬ Book specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More After, Enriques mother Lourdes leaves for the US to look for money so that she can support her child gain education shows the Ã¢â¬Å"hardshipsÃ¢â¬ that mothers go through to raise their children (Border Film Project 10). Overcoming obstacles in life is the most traumatic aspects of the story of Enriques Journey. Enriques mother chooses to do low paying jobs that are often ignored by the citizens of America to make a living that would enable her child get an education. Through these low paying jobs, they improve the countrys economy since the kind of jobs the immigrants do cannot be accepted by the Americans. I chose this aspect because Enrique had to overcome several challenges and problems on his way to America so that he can reunite with his mother, the life in America itself is not that promising as many would have thought. Therefore the life of an immigrant remains to be seen as one full of struggles. He had to be beaten and faced many robberies on the way. However, he is thriving to succeed in his journey to reach her mother is the motivational factor in his success to reach the US. Being determined presents some of the themes in this text and, moreover a reflection of the obstacles Enrique undergoes before reuniting with her mother. Nazario states that, Ã¢â¬Å"she had to work long hours to earn the moneyÃ¢â¬ (235). The writer here refers to the time Lourdes would work that demonstrates the hard work of an immigrant and their determination. In addition, the importance of having hope is the key factor in Enriques continued desire to reach the US. Clearly, the contribution of the immigrants such as the likes of Enrique and his mother is great for the economy of the country.Advertising Looking for essay on american literature? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Many immigrants have to survive in all means whatever it takes for them to do so. The method of survival reflects their determination to succeed in life through doing the small jobs and in the end improve the economy of the country. Lack of finance by Lourdes is a show that she cannot be able to take care of her children and clearly that they are living in poverty. Nazario states that Ã¢â¬Å"Lourdes cannot affor d to feed and educate her children, so she leaves for El NorteÃ¢â¬ (139), this show that the immigrants can be able to do any jobs, work extra hard which is beneficial to a country in terms of economy improvement. Ã¢â¬Å"Enriques JourneyÃ¢â¬ story make people change how they look at the immigrants and need to offer a helping hand because they too are important to the country (Border Film Story). They can help to offload the Ã¢â¬Å"burdenÃ¢â¬ of hard labour which most of the citizens do not want. The determination of Lourdes to make her life better shows the immigrants have a lot of problems and can risk their lives to make ends meet (Nazario 200). The discussion question: Do the immigrants help to improve a countrys economy? Border Film Project. Border Film Project. 2011. Web. borderfilmproject.com/en/ Nazario, Sonia. EnriqueÃ¢â¬â¢s Journey, New York: Random House, 2007. Print
Sunday, November 3, 2019
How the World might change in the next 25 years - Assignment Example Deforestation is increasing the global warming problem and is diminishing the capacity of earth to generate oxygen through its plants. The purpose of this paper is to discuss and predict how advances in the management of natural resources are going to change the reality of humanity by the year 2037. The two social problems correlated to natural resources that are going to be emphasized in this discussion are food and air. The changes that are going to occur will come from exploitation of existing technologies and the creation of new innovations. There are a lot of people suffering from hunger today. Approximately 13% of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population suffers from hunger which represents about 925 million people (http://www.worldhunger.org/articles/Learn/world%20hunger%20facts%202002.htm). A lot of experts believe that the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s current agricultural capacity has the ability to feed everyone on the planet, but hunger is still occurring. One of the problems with the spread of hunger is that certain regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa do not have the arable land and the basic infrastructure such as water and electricity to create food. In the future this constraint will be eliminated as new technologies will enable the planet to turn salt water into drinkable water. About 20 % of the world land is covered by the five major oceans (http://www.gdrc.org/oceans/world-oceans.htm). The second innovation that will revolutionized agriculture worldwide is the creation on synthetic terrain. This new form of land can be transported anywhere and by used to regenerate the soil in places that lack arable land such as Haiti. A second major problem that is going to be resolved is the elimination of deforestation. This will occur prior to 2037 due to the fact that the paper wood milling industry will seize to exist. The world will not longer accept humanity cutting down trees to create books, magazines, or any form of wood pulp paper. Luckily this transition
Friday, November 1, 2019
Law discussions (2) - Assignment Example Another element is offer, which every manager should know is a specifically, clearly asserted proposition (Margolies, 2007). A manager needs to have a complete understanding of the UCC in the state in which he or she conducts business. This is because the UCC is a detailed canon of laws that lead commercial dealings amongst states in the United States (Legal Information Institute, n.d.). Since managerial dealings involve borrowing funds, letting equipment, setting up contracts, and selling products and services, a clear picture of the UCC within the given state is mandatory to avoid legal mishaps. One practice managers in most industries can take to protect the privacy of their employees and customers is knowing the type and amount of personal data the business deals with (Foege, 2013). Secondly, knowing the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s duties and risks is essential mostly to employee privacy. A third practice is involving top management in building a privacy strategy for its staff and clients. Fourthly, forming a game plan that entails a privacy committee inside the organization is encouraged. Lastly, introducing oversight of the privacy program to customers and staff members is critical to their privacy (Foege, 2013). I see personal responsibility and accountability fitting into product liability in the sense that limited liability companies have a second cover of liability defense that shields the enterprise from any personal litigation that might affect it. Foege, A. (2013). 7 Best Privacy Practices for Companies Managing Customer Data. Data Informed. Retrieved from
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
Tempering Justice With Mercy - Essay Example When arguing on the basis of proportionality of punishment, people tend to question the effect of mercy on justice, whether mercy makes victims receive more punishment in legal the system than they deserve or that people receive less punishment than they deserve. This is because when mercy is considered in the process of delivering justice, it would either lead to a sentence being either lower than deserving of a victim or make a victim get lesser sentence than a crime deserves. This dilemma has made many question the appropriateness of fusing justice with mercy and thus tempering justice with mercy. Whiles some reason that mercy is necessary in ensuring that people receive the most proportionate form of punishment due to the nature and circumstances surrounding their crime, there are others who have said that mercy often make people take less than they deserve for their crime and thus serve as an indictment on the legal system. In this paper, the issue of tempering justice with mercy is given a very critical and well researched overview. This is because it is commonly thought that if judges in criminal cases are obliged to do justice, justice must always be allowed to prevail without any disruptions with mercy. In the same manner, prosecutors and parole boards are expected to exercise discretion with maximum justice.
Monday, October 28, 2019
Thin-Layer Chromatography of Steroid Hormones Essay The purpose of this experiment was to test the solubility of various steroids in order to obtain more information about their structure. An unknown was also given to be included in the experiment. The test that was performed was thin-layer chromatography which required a glass plate. The known steroids used in this experiment were estradiol, hydrocortisone, cortisone, corticosterone and deoxycorticosterone. Introduction Steroid hormones are a subgroup of lipids. They are found in one of the primary endocrine glands in the body, the adrenal glands, which are located directly superior to the kidneys. The structures of the adrenal glands begin with the outer layer known as the cortex. This region is most commonly referred to as the adrenal cortex and provides the gland with approximately 80% of its total mass. Within the adrenal cortex there are three layers: the outermost layer is known as the zona glomerulosa, the middle layer is known as the zona fasciculata, and the innermost layer is known as the zona reticularis. Each of these layers is comprised of many cells that synthesize and secrete hormones appropriately named the adrenocorticoids. The second portion of the adrenal gland is known as the adrenal medulla. It is the inner region and account for the remaining 20% in each of the adrenal glands. The adrenal medulla is responsible for the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine into the bloodstream. Adrenocorticoids include three types of steroid hormones. Each class belongs to a specific layer in the adrenal cortex and each class secretes specific hormones. The first group of adrenocorticoids is referred to as mineralcorticoids. These hormones are secreted by the zona glomerulosa and are responsible for the regulation of both the reuptake of sodium and the secretion of potassium. The mineralcorticoid used in this experiment was the more potent, deoxycorticosterone. Abnormal levels of minercorticoids can be associated with hypertension and can be induced by various problems, such as, low blood sodium, high blood potassium, cardiac failure, kidney failure, or even cirrhosis of the liver. The second group of adrenocorticoids is referred to as the glucocorticoids. These are produced by the second layer in the adrenal cortex, the zona fasciculata. The functions of glucocorticoids include stimulating gluconeogenesis through the use of amino acids and breaking down of muscle proteins. In this experiment the glucocorticoids used were hydrocortisone and corticosterone. These hormones are used medically to suppress the immune system by inhibiting the inflammation process. However, too much secretion of these hormones can be indicative of CushingÃ¢â¬â¢s syndrome, pregnancy, and stress that comes from disease or other sorts of bodily trauma. The third group of adrenocorticoids that will be discussed are sex hormones. Sex hormones are not only secreted by the adrenal cortex. They are largely secreted in the reproductive system of each respective gender. Sex hormones can be further categorized into androgenic hormones, estrogenic hormones, and progestational hormones. Androgenic hormones are found predominately in the testes of the male, and there is it secreted by the interstitial Leydig cells. The most common and most powerful androgenic hormone is testosterone. Estrogenic hormones are only slightly different from their counterparts. Estrogenic hormones are identified by their 18 carbon ring structure whereas androgens are identified by their 19 carbon ring structure. Estrogenic hormones are secreted by the female reproductive organs known as the ovaries. The most potent estrogenic hormone is called estradiol and its release fluctuates throughout a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s menstrual cycle, with its peak volumes being around the time of ovulation. The last subgroup of sex hormones is called progestational hormones, or progesterone. Progesterone is responsible for the final maturation of the endometrium. Located in the ovaries, it is released from the corpus luteum during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and also increases in volume during pregnancy as the fetus progresses. Progesterone is different from the other two classes of sex hormones in that it is a 21 carbon ring structure. The modality used in this experiment was a chromatogram. Thin-layer chromatography is the type of chromatography that uses a small glass sheet covered in a thin layer of an adsorbent material. Once solutes are obtained, they are carefully placed on the glass sheet on the origin line. Then the glass sheet is soaked in a solvent for a certain period of time that varies with each chromatography technique. After it is through soaking, the solutes can be observed and the distance that each solute has moved can be measured. This value is obtained by using the R? ormula which takes the distance a solute travels from the origin line divided by the distance that the solvent traveled (this measure is known as the solvent front). This R? value can help determine unknowns as well. The final result of this experiment is known as a chromatogram, and depending on which technique is used, the steroids can be seen through regular light, or via a UV lamp. A UV light lamp was required for this experiment. Chromatography is a very useful tool in identifying the solubility properties of steroid hormones and revealing variants in hormone structure.
Saturday, October 26, 2019
A Helping Hand for College Ã Approximately 60% of all students enrolled in higher education receive some type of financial assistance. Financial aid is provided to students for many reasons. The primary reason is to increase the accessibility for families that are unable to afford the full cost of higher education. Scholarships, loans, and federal work studies are categories of financial aid given to help students further their education. Ã A scholarship is a financial award given to students in recognition of achievement, such as academics or athletics. Other scholarships are awarded to minorities and women to increase their access to higher education. In many cases, the qualifications for a scholarship include financial need as well. A scholarship does not require repayment. Most scholarships are given to students who attend business schools, technical and vocational schools, nursing schools and 2-year colleges. Ã A loan is an award offered by various government and private agencies. The interest rates are lower than those of regular bank loans, and in most cases interest is not charged while a student is enrolled in college; repayment is also extended over a long period of time. There are loans for students and parents. Student loans are the most common form of financial assistance to students. They are available for both undergraduate and graduate studies. They are issued by commercial banks and state student loan authorities at an interest rate considerably lower than the current market level and guaranteed by the federal government. The loan must be repaid within a ten-year period beginning six months after the student's graduation. Ã Federal work study is another type of student financial aid. It is a part-time job co- financed by the government and a college to allow students to earn money to help pay educational expenses. The program encourages community service work and work related to a student's course of study. The salary will be at least minimum wage, but it may be higher, depending on the type of work and skills required. The total federal work study awarded depends on when a student applies, the level of need, and the funding level of a college. An undergraduate student is paid by the hour. A graduate student may be paid by the hour or receive a salary.
Thursday, October 24, 2019
Internal sources of finance for Tesco TescoÃ¢â¬â¢s main internal source of income will be their retained earnings. Retained earnings are the amount of net income that Tesco have retained and not paid out. Retained earnings are what are paid to the business owners. Fixed assets are another form of an internal source of finance; this form of finance is a lot harder to convert into cash as fixed assets tend to be things such as vehicles, machinery, buildings and factories. Fixed assets can take a while to convert into cash so Tesco would not rely on them to be a short-term access to finance. Current assets are a key source of finance for Tesco; current assets are cash and things that are easy to convert into cash. The things that can be converted into cash easily are things such as stock; once the stock has been sold earning will be retained by Tesco. Tesco have to ensure current assets are no lower than current liabilities as this may prevent them from paying off any possible debts they may have. External sources of finance for Tesco As Tesco are a large company some forms of external finance do not apply to them, things such as loans, credit cards and bank overdrafts will be of no interest to Tesco as they are too financially significant to benefit from them. However, the sources that do apply to Tesco are investments from shareholders, Tesco have many competitors all competing for the same thing, to be the biggest supermarket within the UK. For Tesco to take that title they will need as much investors as possible. An average loan from the bank would not benefit Tesco as the loan is likely to be small; however, if Tesco needed a quick source of finance of a large quantity, things such as a government grants would be beneficial; it would be beneficial as the grant is likely to be large.
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
Abyssal Zone Steven Jevan 10. 2 Located deeper than 2000 meters underneath the ocean surface, lies a biome that we have barely seen and realize. This unbelievable and incredible biome is called the abyssal zone. With a depth reaching down to 6000 meters, it is impossible to inhabit this biome. Conversely, certain organisms have managed to keep their survival in this very biome through particular processes. Initially, the abyssal zone and the living organisms inside it, suffers the extreme conditions. The word Ã¢â¬Å"abyssÃ¢â¬ is taken from a Greek word, which means Ã¢â¬Å"bottomless seaÃ¢â¬ . The abyssal zone itself is located between 2000 and 6000 meters underneath the ocean surface. It is located under the bathyal zone and above the hadal zone. In this depth, sunlight is unable to penetrate through. Therefore, this zone is filled with complete and perpetual darkness. At the same time, in a location this deep, the pressure is unbearable to humans. It is written that, Ã¢â¬Å"Because water pressure increases one atmosphere every 33 feet in depth, animals in the abyssal zone must be able to withstand tremendous amounts of pressure. Ã¢â¬ (Abyssal). Therefore, animals must be able to withstand up to 11,000 psi. It is incredible how certain organisms are able to survive in this depth, since this amount of pressure would crush a human immediately. Moreover, since the depth oh this biome is extremely deep, the temperature varies from 0 to 4 degrees Celsius. In addition to that, the salinity of the water in the abyssal zone range between 34. 6 and 35. 0 parts per thousand. We do no realize it, but the abyssal zone covers 60% of the earth and 83% of the oceans. So with these abiotic factors and harsh conditions mentioned, we tend to ask the question, Ã¢â¬Å"How is it possible for organisms to inhabit this biome? Ã¢â¬ As mentioned before, it is almost impossible for organisms to inhabit this biome, but through particular process, it is possible. Generally speaking, fish that lives near the bottom of a sea is categorized as demersal fish. However, demersal fishes are then divided again into two types based on their habitat, coastal and deep-water. As you can see, the fish th at lives in the abyssal zone are categorized as deep-water demersal fish. Examples of these fishes are the: deep-water angler fish, giant grenadier, giant squid, viper fish, etc. There are two ways in which organisms can survive in this biome. First of all, the predators could find their prey. In the abyssal zone, it is extremely dark. However, some fish posses a luminous object to act as bait. For instance, the deep-water angler fish owns a luminous object in its spine. Since the biome is extremely dark, the only luminous object will attract the other fishÃ¢â¬â¢s attention. The second way to survive this biome is through the process of chemosynthesis, rather than photosynthesis. Chemosynthesis is a process in which carbon molecules and nutrients are converted into organic materials using the oxidation of inorganic molecules. Rather than using sunlight as the source of energy, chemosynthesis uses the oxidation of inorganic molecules as the source of energy. In the abyssal zone, there is a steady and much higher concentration of nutrient salts of nitrogen, phosphorus, and silica compared in the waters above. Britannica states that, Ã¢â¬Å"This is because abyssal and hadal waters are the reservoir for the salts from decomposed biological materials that settle downward from upper zones, and the lack of sunlight prevents their uptake by photosynthesis. (Abyssal Zone). Also, there is a special term given to the leftovers of animals, plants, and non-living matters that drift down to the lower zones of the ocean, it is called marine snow. In the abyssal zone, the primary producers are bacteria. These bacteria can also be referred as chemotrophs, or chemosynthetic autotrophs. Therefore, the process of chemosynthesis plays a vital role in the survival of those organisms in the abyssal zone. I have to admit that th e abyssal zone is a remarkable and incredible biome in this earth. Under those harsh and extreme circumstances, the abyssal zone is able to maintain its own organism richness. I find it very hard to believe, but it is what exists in this world. Based on research, the abyssal zone is relatively safe from the harmful effects in the upper part of the earth. The abyssal zone is located so deep and shallow under the ocean surface that it is not affected by the problems associated in the ocean surface. In the long run, certain organisms have managed to keep their survival in this very biome through particular processes. The abyssal zone, which is almost inhospitable, turns out to be a habitat for certain organisms. I must say that this biome is phenomenal and implausible. Works Cited Ã¢â¬ ¢ Abyssal. Web. 1 Sept. 2009. . Ã¢â¬ ¢ Abyssal Zone. Wikipedia. Web. 1 Sept. 2009. . Ã¢â¬ ¢ Abyssal zone. Britannica. Web. 2 Sept. 2009. . Ã¢â¬ ¢ Autotroph. Web. 2 Sept. 2009. . Ã¢â¬ ¢ Chemosynthesis. Wikipedia. Web. 1 Sept. 2009. . Ã¢â¬ ¢ Chemosynthesis. Web. 2 Sept. 2009. . Ã¢â¬ ¢ Demersal fish. Wikipedia. Web. 2 Sept. 2009. . Ã¢â¬ ¢ Marine Snow. Web. 2 Sept. 2009. . Ã¢â¬ ¢ Pelagic fish. Wikipedia. Web. 2 Sept. 2009. . Ã¢â¬ ¢ What is Chemosynthesis? Web. 2 Sept. 2009. .
Tuesday, October 22, 2019
Mississippians Were the Mound Builders in North America The Mississippian culture is what archaeologists call the pre-Columbian horticulturalists who lived in the midwestern and southeastern United States between about AD 1000-1550. Mississippian sites have been identified within the river valleys of nearly a third of what is today the United States, including an area centered in Illinois but found as far south as the Florida panhandle, west as Oklahoma, north as Minnesota, and east as Ohio. Mississippian Chronology 1539 - Hernando de Sotos expedition visits Mississippian polities from Florida to Texas1450-1539 - mound centers regroup, some develop paramount leaders1350-1450 - Cahokia abandoned, many other mound centers decrease in population1100-1350 - multiple mound centers arise radiating out from Cahokia1050-1100 - Cahokias Big Bang, population peaks at 10,000-15,000, colonization efforts begin in the north800-1050 - un-palisaded villages and intensification of maize exploitation, Cahokia population at about 1000 by AD 1000 Regional Cultures The term Mississippian is a broad umbrella term that includes several similar regional archaeological cultures. The southwestern portion of this huge area (Arkansas, Texas, Oklahoma and adjacent states) is known as Caddo; the Oneota is found in Iowa, Minnesota, Illinois and Wisconsin); Fort Ancient is the term referring to Mississippian-like towns and settlements in the Ohio River Valley of Kentucky, Ohio, and Indiana; and the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex includes the states of Alabama, Georgia, and Florida. At a minimum, all of these distinctive cultures shared cultural traits of mound construction, artifact forms, symbols, and stratified ranking. Mississippian cultural groups were independent chiefdoms which were primarily connected, at varying levels, by loosely organized trade systems and warfare. The groups shared a common ranked societal structure; a farming technology based on the three sisters of maize, beans, and squash; fortification ditches and palisades; large earthen flat-topped pyramids (called platform mounds); and a set of rituals and symbols referring to fertility, ancestor worship, astronomical observations, and war. Origins of the Mississippians The archaeological site of Cahokia is the largest of the Mississippian sites and arguably the main generator for most of the ideas that make up Mississippian culture. It was located in the segment of the Mississippi River Valley in the central United States known as the American Bottom. In this rich environment just east of the modern day city of St. Louis, Missouri, Cahokia rose to become an enormous urban settlement. It has by far the largest mound of any Mississippian site and held a population of between 10,000-15,000 at its heyday. Cahokias center called Monks Mound covers an area of five hectares (12 acres) at its base and stands over 30 meters (~100 feet) tall. The vast majority of Mississippian mounds in other places are no more than 3 m (10 ft) high. Because of Cahokias extraordinary size and early development, American archaeologist Timothy Pauketat has argued that Cahokia was the regional polity which provided the impetus for the incipient Mississippian civilization. Certainly, in terms of chronology, the habit of constructing mound centers began at Cahokia and then moved outward into the Mississippi Delta and Black Warrior valleys in Alabama, followed by centers in Tennessee and Georgia. That is not to say that Cahokia ruled these areas, or even had direct hands-on influence in their construction. One key identifying the independent rise of the Mississippian centers is theÃ multiplicity of languages that were used by the Mississippians. Seven distinct language families were used in the Southeast alone (Muskogean, Iroquoian, Catawban, Caddoan, Algonkian, Tunican, Timuacan), and many of the languages were mutually unintelligible. Despite this, most scholars support the centrality of Cahokia and suggest that the different Mississippian polities emerged as aÃ combination of a product of several intersecting local and external factors. What Connects the Cultures to Cahokia? Archaeologists have identified several traits connecting Cahokia to the vast number of other Mississippian chiefdoms. Most of those studies indicate that Cahokias influence varied over time and space. The only true colonies established identified to date include about a dozen sites such as Trempealeau and Aztalan in Wisconsin, beginning about 1100 AD. American archaeologist Rachel Briggs suggests that the Mississippian standard jar and its usefulness in converting maize into edible hominy was a common thread for Alabamas Black Warrior Valley, which saw Mississippian contact as early as 1120 AD. In Fort Ancient sites, which Mississippian immigrants reached in the late 1300s, there was no increased use of maize, but according to Americanist Robert Cook, a new form of leadership developed, associated with dog/wolf clans and cult practices. The pre-Mississippian Gulf Coast societies seem to have been a generator of artifacts and ideas shared by the Mississippians. Lightning whelks (Busycon sinistrum), a Gulf Coast marine shellfish with a left-handed spiral construction, have been found at Cahokia and other Mississippian sites. Many are reworked into the form of shell cups, gorgets, and masks, as well as marine shell bead making. Some shell effigies made from pottery have also been identified. American archaeologists Marquardt and Kozuch suggest that the whelks left-handed spiral may have represented a metaphor for the continuity and inevitability of birth, death, and rebirth. There is also some evidence that groups along central Gulf Coast made stepped pyramids before Cahokias rise (Pluckhahn and colleagues). Social Organization Scholars are divided on the political structures of the various communities. To some scholars, a centralized political economy with a paramount chief or leader appears to have been in effect at many of the societies where burials of elite persons have been identified. In this theory, political control likely developed over the restricted access to food storage, labor to build platform mounds, craft production of luxury items of copper and shell, and the funding of feasting and other rituals. Social structure within the groups was ranked, with at least two or more classes of people with different amounts of power in evidence. The second group of scholars is of the opinion that most Mississippian political organizations were decentralized, that there may have been ranked societies, but access to status and luxury goods was by no means as imbalanced as one would expect with a true hierarchical structure. These scholars support the notion of autonomous polities who were engaged in loose alliances and warfare relationships, led by chiefs who were at least partly controlled by councils and kin- or clan-based factions. The most likely scenario is that the amount of control held by elites in Mississippian societies varied considerably from region to region. Where the centralized model probably works best are in those regions with clearly evident mound centers such as Cahokia and Etowah in Georgia; decentralization was clearly in effect in the Carolina Piedmont and southern Appalachia visited by 16th-century European expeditions. Sources Alt S. 2012. Making Mississippian at Cahokia. In: Pauketat TR, editor. Oxford Handbook of North American Archaeology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p 497-508.Bardolph D. 2014. Evaluating Cahokian Contact and Mississippian Identity Politics in the Late Prehistoric Central Illinois River Valley. American Antiquity 79(1):69-89.Briggs RV. 2017. The Civil Cooking Pot: Hominy and the Mississippian Standard Jar in the Black Warrior Valley, Alabama. American Antiquity 81(2):316-332.Cook R. 2012. Dogs of War: Potential Social Institutions of Conflict, Healing, and Death in a Fort Ancient Village. American Antiquity 77(3):498-523.Cook RA, and Price TD. 2015. Maize, mounds, and the movement of people: isotope analysis of a Mississippian/Fort Ancient region. Journal of Archaeological Science 61:112-128.Marquardt WH, and Kozuch L. 2016. The lightning whelk: An enduring icon of southeastern North American spirituality. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 42:1-26.Pauketat TR, Alt SM, and Kruc hten JD. 2017. The Emerald Acropolis: elevating the moon and water in the rise of Cahokia. Antiquity 91(355):207-222. Pluckhahn TJ, Thompson VD, and Rink WJ. 2016. Evidence for Stepped Pyramids of Shell in the Woodland Period of Eastern North America. American Antiquity 81(2):345-363.Skousen BJ. 2012. Posts, places, ancestors, and worlds: dividual personhood in the American Bottom region. Southeastern Archaeology 31(1):57-69.Slater PA, Hedman KM, and Emerson TE. 2014. Immigrants at the Mississippian polity of Cahokia: strontium isotope evidence for population movement. Journal of Archaeological Science 44:117-127.